Volume 4, Issue 1 • Winter 2015

Table of Contents


Modifying Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Incarcerated Female Youth: A Pilot Study

The Impact of Child Protective Service History on Reoffending in a New Mexico Juvenile Justice Population

Social Distance Between Minority Youth and the Police:
An Exploratory Analysis of the TAPS Academy

Rural Youth Crime: A Reexamination of Social Disorganization Theory’s Applicability to Rural Areas

How to Help Me Get Out of a Gang: Youth Recommendations to Family, School, Community, and Law Enforcement Systems

Exploratory Research Commentary:
How Do Parents and Guardians of Adolescents in the Juvenile Justice System Handle Adolescent Sexual Health?


Journal of Juvenile Justice Cover

Welcome to the sixth issue of the Journal of Juvenile Justice. This peer-reviewed journal provides the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) a venue to engage the juvenile justice community and present new and significant scientific findings.

As OJJDP’s new Research Coordinator, I am pleased to have the opportunity to introduce myself (and this issue) to the field. After earning a PhD in criminology from the University of Maryland, I began my career in juvenile justice, serving nearly 10 years as a research criminologist in Federal government before joining OJJDP in 2014. One of the key themes in my career to date has been the search for new ideas, new topics, and unexplored areas of criminology.

A unifying theme among the papers presented in this issue of the Journal is that each takes on an important and typically neglected topic. It is not a surprise to see that some types of subjects, situations, or methodologies are less prominent within the field. Individual scientific endeavors tend to focus on what is presumed to be the most pressing issue of the day, and to design a study that is as easy or efficient as possible to carry out. For example, males are more often studied in part because there are far more of them in the juvenile justice system. The same is true of research in urban areas. Crime is disproportionately high in these areas, which are typically located close to universities that generate most of the scientific research. There is also more infrastructure in urban areas, which makes research relatively easier to carry out and more valuable relative to conducting the same study in a rural area. There are more youth potentially impacted in the local urban community, and there is more political capital to possibly gain, as well as more potential funding.

Yet the net impact of such efficient choices in individual studies leads to large-scale inefficiency in the aggregate. Seeking these convenient or efficient choices means that we as a field may create a blurred vision of juvenile delinquency, the juvenile justice system, and the direction that policy should go. It is critical to recall, for example, that 80% of police agencies operate in small towns and rural areas. What are the limits of urban criminology in speaking to juvenile delinquency in these areas?

The papers presented in this issue each represent an attempt to buck this trend. One takes on treatment of confined girls. Another asks whether theories developed in urban areas can inform juvenile justice in rural areas. One looks at a special population, and special data source, rarely used in studies of delinquency: child protective service exposure. A fourth paper examines policing, but not as enforcers of law and administrators of force. Instead, it looks at the police as mentors of delinquent youth. The fifth paper examines desistance from gangs, which is not a rare topic per se, but the methodology certainly is: giving voice, and legitimacy, to gang members themselves. The idea that we, the “experts,” have something to learn from delinquent youth in terms of programming or policy is too rare. The final paper takes on two neglected topics simultaneously. First, it intends to serve guardians of delinquent youth. Most of our research is intended to assist juvenile justice personnel or treatment providers. As such, most work is somewhat disempowering to parents or guardians of youth. This paper reminds us that these guardians are integral members of the youth’s lives and the justice system. Second, it takes on a topic that is less prominent: sexual health of delinquents. This area of life is critical to delinquent youth, their desistance, and their broader communities.

Collectively, these six papers illuminate understudied populations and areas, underutilized methodologies or paradigms, underserved stakeholders, and underappreciated aspects of juveniles or justice workers. It is especially exciting for me to share these new ideas and insights with the field.

David M. Bierie, PhD
Research Coordinator
Division of Innovation and Research


Editor in Chief:
Monica L.P. Robbers, PhD

Associate Editors:
Eve Shapiro

Margaret Bowen

Deputy Editors and e-publishing:
Kimberly G. Taylor
Stephen Constantinides

Advisory Board:
Janet Chiancone
Catherine Doyle
Brecht Donoghue

Editorial Office:
CSR Incorporated
4250 N. Fairfax Drive, Suite 500
Arlington, VA 22203
Phone: 703-312-5220
Fax: 703-312-5230

Journal website:
ISSN: 2153-8026

Peer Reviewers

Ms. Hosea Addison

Alabama Department of Youth Services

Ms. Jennifer Anderson

Childrens Org, Minnesota

Mr. Patrick Anderson

Chugachmiut, Inc., Alaska

Dr. Stephen Anderson

University of Connecticut

Dr. James Andretta

Child Guidance Clinic, Washington, DC

Dr. Aisha Asby

Prairie View A&M University, Texas

Dr. Carol Bonham

University of Southern Indiana

Dr. Georgia Calhoun

University of Georgia

Dr. Susan Carter

National Indian Youth Leadership Project, New Mexico

Dr. Sharon Casey

Deakin University of Australia

Dr. Charles Corley

University of Michigan

Ms. Wendy Corley-Ryan

Manteca Unified School District, California

Dr. John Gary Crawford

Kesher-a-Kesher, Inc., Pennsylvania

Ms. Susan Cruz

Sin Fronteras, California

Dr. Alison Cuellar

George Mason University, Virginia

Dr. Patricia Dahl

Washburn University, Kansas

Ms. Susan Davis

Capitol Region Education Council, Connecticut

Mr. David Deal

DealWork, Virginia

Ms. Laurel Edinburgh

Children’s Hospitals and Clinics of Minnesota–Midwest Children’s Resource Center, Minnesota

Dr. Sonja Frison

University of North Carolina

Ms. Josephine Hahn

Center for Court Innovation, New York

Ms. Karen Harden

Boys and Girls Club of Lac Courte Oreilles, Wisconsin

Ms. Sara Harvison

Fairbanks Youth Facility, Alaska

Dr. R. Anna Hayward

Stony Brook University, New York

Ms. Alice Heiserman

American Correctional Association, Virginia

Mr. Xavier Henson

Grambling State University, Louisiana

Dr. James Jackson

Howard University, Maryland

Dr. Yongseol Jang

California State University

Dr. Lee Johnson

University of West Georgia

Dr. Lauren Josephs

Visionary Vanguard Group, Inc., Florida

Dr. Thomas Keller

Portland State University, Oregon

Ms. Karen Lovelace

Limestone College, South Carolina

Dr. Martha Michael

Capital University, Ohio

Ms. Donna Millar

Maryland Department of Juvenile Justice

Ms. Pam Miller

The ITM Group, Florida

Dr. Stacy Moak

University of Arkansas at Little Rock

Mr. Jim Moeser

Wisconsin Council on Children and Families

Dr. Prabir Pattnaik

Kalinga Institute of Industrial Technology (KIIT) University, India

Ms. Sarah Pearson

Virago Education Innovations, Virginia

Mr. Theron Powell

State of Alaska, Division of Juvenile Justice

Dr. Susan Reid

St. Thomas University, Florida

Ms. Gloria Roberts

Tougaloo College, Mississippi

Dr. Gregory Rocheleau

East Tennessee State University

Dr. Tres Stefurak

University of South Alabama

Dr. David Stein

Utah State University

Ms. Sheryl Stokes

National Center for Missing & Exploited Children, Virginia

Dr. Kristin Thompson

University of Arizona

Mr. Lee Thornhill

Evergreen State College, Washington

Mr. James Turner II

Saving Our Youth Consultant Group, Tennessee

Dr. Michael Wiblishauser

University of Toledo, Ohio

Dr. Jeannette Wyatt

Widener University, Pennsylvania

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